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Author Guidelines

ARP’s primary publication continues to be the well-known AFIP/ARP Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology. For the history of this series, please visit About ARP.  In 2024, ARP is launching the New Findings series. Contributions to this digital-only series are shorter and have a more narrow focus than the fascicles.

The following guidelines for authors represent the collective guidance of the American Registry of Pathology’s Editor, Editorial Advisory Board (EAB), and Publications Office. They are intended to be read through once as an overview, and then used as a guide to be consulted as specific questions arise about general format, deadlines, labeling of illustrations, sequencing of references, or any of the many other issues that come up as an ARP publication is being planned, written, reviewed, and in production. The guidelines for both the Atlases and New Findings are the same except where noted.

Whenever you have a question, contact the Editor or the Publications Office. The list of staff and EAB members is available here.

ARP Publications


In line with AFIP/ARP’s long standing approach to the fascicles, in the Atlases, every major tumor type and subtype should be described and illustrated, using the currently accepted standard classification, with adequate, but not overwhelming, documentation by recent literature references and discussion of all adjunctive morphologic and other techniques (cytopathology, immunohistochemistry, and pertinent molecular techniques). The Atlases are not meant to expand on considerations or terminology of a very personal nature, but rather to present the currently accepted or currently favored views and terms. Naturally, authors should feel free to express their views on controversial issues and state their preferences, but alternative viewpoints should also be discussed in a fair and even-handed way. Please note: Fifth Series Atlases are not revisions of the Fourth Series, but rather brand new texts and images, reflecting the current state of scientific knowledge. Reuse of images from the Fourth Series is strongly discouraged.

New Findings

Contributions to the New Findings series are shorter publications that focus on aspects of pathology that have developed since the related fascicle was published, and warrant current reflection, commentary or discussion. These might include recently recognized tumor types (or subtypes), new immunohistochemical markers of particular diagnostic significance, or novel molecular pathogenetic alterations. While New Findings are brief in comparison to the atlases, they continue to reflect ARP’s commitment to high standards in disseminating knowledge about pathology.

General Information

The Editor selects and recruits the authors of and monitor the production of those publications from inception to the final published version (print and/or digital). The Publications Office, led by the Director of Publications, manages the details of production, including copyediting, typesetting, proofing, and coordination with print and digital publishing partners. The lead author is appointed by the Editor during the recruitment phase and is the primary contact for any co-authors as well as the Editor and Press Staff regarding all aspects of the publication.


Atlases: the lead author may select up to three additional co-authors. All authors will be included on the cover and title page. If someone has contributed to the work but not at the author level, acknowledge them in the front matter.

New Findings: a single author is strongly preferred due to the length of this type of contribution. Copyright,

Permissions, Author Expenses

The ARP will copyright the publications and require signed agreements from the lead author. The agreement with the lead author covers the work of any co-authors brought on board.

For the use of material from other publications, authors are responsible for providing the Editorial Office with necessary information about permission to use copyrighted or likely copyrighted material. The Editorial Office will do its best to obtain the necessary permissions based on the information provided by the authors. In the rare case when permission is not obtained, that material must be omitted from the Atlas. The Editorial Office would work with the author to rework that part of the Atlas. Please note: from the standpoint of copyright law, obtaining permission to reprint or use material is not the same as attribution. If there are any questions, reach out to the Director of Publications.

If an author desires fees for consultants and/or illustrators, discuss first with the Director of Publications. Please submit receipts and invoices to the Editorial Office with an accompanying explanatory letter. Details of the compensation agreement are included in the publishing contract.

Commitment to Write

After agreeing to write the contribution, the authors will:

  • Sign a publishing agreement with ARP
  • Receive deadline for submission of the outline, potential sample chapter/section

The outline is to be submitted by the lead author to the Editor, who will review it and return it to the author with comments and request for a sample chapter, if required.

  • Submit completed manuscript draft

Submit all clearly labeled word documents, images, tables (organized by chapter) by the author to the Editor in Chief, with logistical assistance from ARP staff. It will be reviewed within a 4-week period by the Editor and any external peer reviewers.

  • Revise the manuscript based on reviewer feedback and submit final manuscript

Authors will ordinarily be asked to make these changes and to return the revised version to the Editor within 4 weeks, together with an explanation of the action taken with each of the changes suggested.

The Editor will review the revision and send it to the Publications Staff for production.

All manuscripts submitted to the Editorial Office are subject to this review process, which is similar to that of manuscripts sent to peer-reviewed journals

  • Stay in communication with Publications Office Staff regarding production (outlined below)


After the revised manuscript’s acceptance by the Editor, the Publications Office will begin production. The Publications Staff is committed to maintaining high quality work in copyediting, proofing, and of course overall layout. As such, the time required for each publication does vary based on the length of manuscript. The time frames below are estimates, and specific dates will be worked out with authors as work progresses.

Atlas Production 

Atlas authors are encouraged to reach out at any time during production with questions. In general, questions related to the topic of the Atlas and content should be addressed to the Editor. Questions pertaining to the publishing process should be addressed to the Editorial Office. The ARP Press staff, Editor, and Editorial Advisory Board (EAB) are listed at

  • Outline: Consult with the Editor as needed
  • Manuscript: Submission of complete text, figures, figure legends, and references
  • Review: Reviewers selected by the editor review and submit feedback on the manuscript. Author(s) revise according to reviewer feedback
  • Editor accepts revision and moves it to ARP Staff for production
Staff Prepares Manuscript for Production 
  • Copyedit the text, prepare images and tables, review references
  • Produce initial layout with color images within 6 months 
Draft 1 (D1)
  • Staff Review #1: review of initial draft by staff
  • Queries collected by copyeditor, staff
  • Determine if permissions are required for any submitted images. If so, reach out for permission.
Draft 2 (D2)
  • Author Review #1: Author(s) and Editor review pre-printer galleys (PDF to review; hard copy available to lead author if wanted)
  • Author submits edits within 2 weeks
  • Author answers any queries
  • Edits entered and verified by staff
  • Front Matter collected from author and typeset; reviewed
  • Author has opportunity to suggest images to be used on the front cover. Images for cover must be of the highest quality and balance well visually with other images. Final decision for images is with Publications Office
Draft 3 (D3)
  • Staff Review #2: Indexing and final spell check by copyeditor
  • Verify all D2 edits have been made; all queries answered
  • Final proofing by Publications Office
Color Correct Printer Proofs
  • Staff sends finalized files to the printer for color correct proofs
  • Lead Author, Editor, Staff review proofs, with focus on color correctness of the images
  • Other edits are limited to correcting errors (ie, no wordsmithing at this stage)
  • Final approval from author/editor of corrected pdfs
  • Note: for New Findings, this print-focused stage will be skipped. Rather, a final pdf will be sent to the Author and Editor for careful review, with special consideration of the images’ color balance.
Final File Submission to Printer
  • Staff sends corrected files (ie pages) to the printer
  • Reviews and approves final soft proofs
  • Publishing Director receives, reviews, and approves hard copy of cover, folds & gathers, advanced copy
  • Print copies are ready to ship approximately 4-6 weeks after final file submission and approval


Digital Publishing

After the publication has been approved for printing, Publications Staff sends the final files to a vendor for preparation to be published on, as part of our searchable platform. Publications Staff approves the digital version for publication and sets it to go live.

Atlas authors are encouraged to reach out at any time during production with questions. In general, questions related to the topic of the Atlas and content should be addressed to the Editor. Questions pertaining to the publishing process should be addressed to the Editorial Office. The ARP Press staff and Editor are listed at

Style Guidelines 

The AFIP/ARP Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology collection is intended to be a single comprehensive treatise on the pathology of human tumors or non-neoplastic conditions, with each Atlas representing a single volume of the collection. A key part of ARP Publishing Office Staff’s work is to ensure detailed consistency throughout the entire Atlas series through formatting and style (more on that below).

Authors are asked to help with this in two ways:

  1. Strong communication among the authors of each fascicle to ensure consistency across the chapters and to avoid repetitions. Any decisions made for this purpose are best addressed in the manuscript phase, before typesetting occurs, though can be addressed as late as in the D2 phase.
  2. Follow ARP’s terminology guidelines:
  • Terminology should be the same as that employed in key publications in pathology, particularly the World Health Organization (WHO). Atlas authors should attempt to harmonize with WHO histologic classification of tumors related to their subject. Use of common terminology is highly encouraged. If an alternative designation is preferred, the WHO term should be mentioned as a synonym or discussed in the Definition section, as well as the reason for the alternate choice given.
  • Areas in which this integration is particularly important include:
  • Mesenchymal Tumors and Tumor-Like Conditions should only include the features (including frequency) of those lesions that are peculiar to those organ systems covered in each specific Atlas (e.g., schwannoma of the oral cavity), and refer to the appropriate AFIP/ARP Atlas, standard books, or monographs on the subject regarding the general morphologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural features of these entities.
  • Lymphoid-Hematopoietic Tumors and Tumor-Like Conditions should only include the features (including frequency) that are peculiar to those organ systems covered in each specific Atlas (e.g., Hodgkin lymphoma of the thyroid), and refer to the appropriate AFIP/ARP Atlas or standard monographs on the subject regarding general morphologic, immuno-histochemical, and ultrastructural features of those entities.
  • Certain Tumors and Tumor-Like Conditions Exhibiting Neuroendocrine Differentiation should only include the features (including frequency) that are peculiar to those organ systems covered in each specific Atlas (e.g., paraganglioma of gallbladder), and refer to the appropriate AFIP/ARP Atlas regarding the general morphologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural features of those entities.
  • Tumors and Tumor-Like Conditions Located at the Boundary Between One Site and Another (e.g., carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater) should be discussed in detail in only one Atlas; the other pertinent Atlases should only refer to the first. The decision as to Atlas selection for the individual lesions will be made by the EAB or the Editor after discussion with the respective authors.


Content: General

The length of each Atlas will largely be determined by the author. The recommended maximum number of pages (including illustrations, references, and index) for a single Atlas is around 500. Any increase over this number may be discussed with the Editor. Keep in mind that one printed page of text is equivalent to 2½ double-spaced typed pages, and that one printed page of references is equivalent to 5 1/3 double-spaced typed pages.

The entire manuscript includes text, references, images/figures, legends for illustrations, tables, acknowledgments, and preface/introduction. The margins should be 1 inch wide. The pages should be numbered consecutively, beginning with the title page.

Do not use footnotes or endnotes; incorporate that information in the text, parenthetically or not.

The original electronic manuscript should be submitted in Word for review purposes. Following review, incorporation of changes by the authors (if requested), and acceptance of the final manuscript by the Editor, the author will then provide the Publications Office with their final version. At the time of submission, an abstract concerning the Atlas contents must be provided.


Content: Front Matter

Title Page

The title page should include authors’ names, titles, and University/Hospital affiliations, with addresses and zip codes.

Editorial Advisory Board (EAB) Page

This page will be supplied by the Editorial Office.


If the authors would like to include a dedication, it will be placed here.


This page is where the author(s) acknowledge people who have helped substantially in the creation of the publication. It is a good idea to show the proposed wording of the acknowledgement to the person whose help you are acknowledging. Furthermore, if your acknowledgment relates to an idea, suggestion, or interpretation, be as specific as possible about it. This is separate from permissions-related acknowledgments for images, which are included as part of the legends and/or included on the staff-generated permissions page.

Editor’s Note

This page is supplied by the Editorial Office for consistency across all Atlases in a series.

Preface and/or Introduction

A general introduction or preface to the subject discussed in the Atlas can be included here if desired. Historical considerations should be kept to a minimum. If the introduction will be more extensive (i.e., it will include images and/or references), submit it with the manuscript as chapter 1.

Table of Contents

This contains a list of all the chapters and subchapters. A maximum of three levels of headings is allowed in the table of contents; four may be used in the text (see below). The head type (designated from 1 to 3 in decreasing number of importance), should be indicated in the Table of Contents page in the forms of progressive indentations, as follows:

Head #1 (Chapter title)

Head #2 (Major heading)

Head #3 (Minor heading)


Atlas Content: Chapters

Normal Anatomy

Each Atlas should include a section briefly describing the normal anatomic features of the organ or system being discussed. This should include embryology, gross anatomy, light microscopy, cytology, ultrastructure, immunohistochemistry, and any other pertinent information (such as physiology) whenever indicated. The amount of coverage should obviously be dependent on the type of system discussed. Emphasis should be placed on those normal anatomic features that are of particular importance to the pathologist.


A general introduction to the classification of the tumors included in the Atlas should be presented, preferably in a tabular form. This could be accompanied by an explanation of the basis of the classification scheme if appropriate. If a commonly used alternative classification system exists, it would be desirable to discuss it, compare it with the one that has been selected, and explain the reasons for the choice. As discussed above, the WHO system is the preferred classification.

Discussion of Individual Tumors

Title. Except for very special and properly justified circumstances, the title to be chosen for the various entities should reflect currently accepted nomenclature. This fulfills one of the long-standing goals of the Atlases to promote standardized nomenclature.

Definition. A short definition of the entity being discussed should be given, using a style similar to that of the WHO booklets on histological classification of tumors. This definition should be used only for the major tumor types, and it should be as concise as possible. It could be of either descriptive or conceptual nature, and should not incorporate a discussion of the clinical or pathologic findings that will be discussed below. For example, the definition of follicular adenoma of the thyroid might read: “A follicular adenoma is a benign encapsulated tumor showing evidence of follicular cell differentiation.” Any discussion of synonyms and alternative designations should be incorporated in this section. A separate listing of synonyms and related terms will not be employed. There should be no attempt to provide an encyclopedic list of synonyms, and those of historic interest should be avoided.

General Features. This section should be used only for major tumor types (i.e., carcinoma of lung, carcinoma of large bowel). It should contain important information in a condensed form of topics such as incidence, epidemiology, etiopathogenic factors, multiplicity, bilaterality, and associated lesions, whenever pertinent. Please note that that the Atlases have a worldwide distribution; whenever geographic differences exist in terms of tumor frequency, morphologic features, or outcome, these should be discussed in this section.

Clinical Features. This section is also primarily designed for the major tumor types and should be of a very condensed nature. It should incorporate radiographic and clinical laboratory data whenever indicated. It should also include diagnostic techniques such as biopsy, if pertinent.

Gross Findings. Gross findings of diagnostic and prognostic importance should be emphasized. Clues as to microscopic sampling and gross-microscopic correlations should also be incorporated into this section if pertinent.

Microscopic Findings. This section will largely consist of a description of the light microscopic appearance as seen in hematoxylin-eosin (H&E)–stained sections, but it should also incorporate the results of conventional special stains whenever indicated. The morphologic criteria for diagnosis and definitions of entities should be stated as clearly and explicitly as possible. Identify stains other than H&E. For routine special stains, use commonly recognized names, e.g., van Gieson elastic stain, Mallory trichrome. Immunohistochemical pro-cedures may be identified by general accepted terms. Procedures unique to the authors or less frequently used should be described. The use of tables is highly recommended.

Histologic Types. If reasonably distinct microscopic variations of the tumor entity being described exist (i.e., serous type of endometrial adenocarcinoma), the use of a separate section for their individual description is recommended, particularly if these variants are of clinical significance. To avoid repetition and confusion, any discussion of immunohistochemical and other special techniques pertaining to these specific variants should be part of this section. Minor variations of microscopic appearance should be incorporated in the main section on Microscopic Findings.

Immunohistochemical Findings. The description of immunohistochemical findings can be either incorporated into the Microscopic Findings section or made into a separate section depending on the amount of information presented. If the description is complex or includes a large number of markers, use a separate section. Most of the discussion should deal with commercially available antibodies. To have a lengthy discussion about antibodies that are available to only a few investigators and may never achieve general use is frustrating to the reader and increases the length of the text unnecessarily. An attempt should be made to indicate which of the listed antibodies are currently considered to be standard to evaluate a given neoplasm, and whether these antibodies can be applied to formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections.

Cytologic Findings. Only as needed.

Molecular Genetic Findings. This includes in situ hybridization techniques, genetic and other molecular approaches, flow cytometry, and morphometry, particularly if the findings seem to be of diagnostic or prognostic significance.

Differential Diagnosis. Whenever indicated, a section on the morphologic differential diagnosis of the entity being discussed should be included. This should consist of a detailed listing of the specific criteria, either in a narrative or tabular form, and preferably both. Illustrations will also be useful in this section.

Treatment. This should consist of a short paragraph on the therapy or therapies currently used for the major tumor entities being discussed. This should deal only with general therapeutic principles and recommendations, rather than with technical details such as the type of chemotherapeutic regimes, except when the latter relate directly to morphologic parameters.

Prognosis. General information about the prognosis of patients with the entity being discussed (including survival rates) should be followed by a listing of morphologic and other parameters that relate to prognosis.


New Findings Content

Generally, since New Findings will encompass a range of topics, it does not require the same kind of specific guidelines as the Atlases. Authors should use headings and subheadings to help guide their readers.


ARP Content Style


Overall Style  

The style should be the same throughout all sections of a single publication. It is the responsibility of the lead author to discuss stylistic matters with the other authors at the beginning, and to edit the manuscript so that the manuscript has internal consistency. This is true for content as well as for style: one sentence should not refer to carcinosarcoma and another to metaplastic carcinoma to describe the same tumor. And one should not recommend immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, or molecular genetics as a diagnostic technique for a particular tumor while another claims that technique is worthless. The lead author (whose name is typically first on the cover and title page) is the author with whom the ARP Staff and the Editor deal directly, and he or she accepts responsibility for content, style, and deadlines.

Generally, writing and formatting throughout a series needs to be as uniform as possible. There are many styles across different presses and publishers. ARP Press reserves the right to ensure consistency in style across their publications and specifically within a series. This may not be in alignment with an author’s personal preference for punctuation, formatting, lay out, and other style issues but for the sake of the series as whole, we maintain that consistency.

Here are the most important common style/formatting points:

  • References are always listed at the end of a chapter, in citation order
  • Within the text, reference numbers usually appear at the end of the sentence; they may also appear following the name of an author(s): “Jain and Chopra (45) reported a case...”
  • The ARP Press numbering system for chapters and figures is used across all Fascicles. It is: Figure [CHAPTER#]-[FIGURE# in order of appearance]. For example, the second figure in Chapter One is Fig. 1-2


Headings Format

A maximum of four levels of headings is allowed in in the text. In the manuscript, the various head types are as follows:

  • Head #2 (Minor Heading): Centered, Initial Capitals*, Boldfaced 
  • Head #3 (Subheading): Initial Capitals*, Boldfaced, Not Centered 
  • Head #4 (Under Subheading): Initial Capitals*, Italicized, Not Centered 

*articles and prepositions are not capitalized per style


References are cited in the text and listed at the end of each chapter. They are numbered in the order they appear in the text. More details are in “References” under the “Style” section below. Place the references within parentheses at the end of the sentence: (1). They should not be in superscript notation. If references and figures are cited together, the figure number appears first and then the reference: (fig. 1-3) (5).

Text Boxes

Text boxes are not needed but if they are used they should be used to highlight some of the key points of certain tumor types (epidemiology, key morphologic points, key ancillary studies, and comments on treatment and outcome).


The use of tables is encouraged and should be referred to in the appropriate section of the text, with a brief summary. The same data, however, should not be presented at length in both the text and a table. As with the rest of the text, try to avoid repetition.

A table should be complete in itself. The title, headings, and footnotes should contain all the information needed to understand the table without consulting the text. Organize the data so that the like elements read down, not across.

Data should be pertinent and meaningful as well as accurate and consistent with the text and other tables of the publication. Data for display must be chosen carefully, as not all results need or deserve publication. Present data justifying the important conclusions. If values within a column or row are all the same, present them in the text or in a footnote to the table. Data that have been mathematically manipulated (e.g., averaged or extrapolated) should not be presented with more significance than warranted by the sensitivity with which the raw data were obtained.

Keep the format clear, simple, and well organized so that any trends and relationships can be recognized easily and space is not wasted. Undue complexity, awkward word choice, cryptic abbreviations, and large masses of raw or only partially digested data are common problems that slow or puzzle the reader. Tables of similar information should have similar or parallel formats, style, and titles. Do not ask readers to compare data presented in graphs. Be sure that each table is cited in the text.

If the data show pronounced trends, use a graph. If they don’t, a table should be satisfactory. Whenever graphs are prepared (as opposed to tables), submit them as images. Such graphs will be considered as figures, rather than tables, and they should be cited as such in the text.

Table submission instructions:
  • Enter each table double-spaced on a separate page.
  • Do not submit tables as photographs.
  • Assemble all tables at the end of each chapter in the manuscript, not interspersed in the text.
  • Provide a brief title for each table.
  • Number tables consecutively by chapter in the order of their first citation in the text.
  • Orient tables vertically on the page.
  • Give each column a short or abbreviated heading.
  • Place explanatory matter in the accompanying legend or table footnotes, not in the heading.
  • Explain in footnotes all abbreviations that are used in each table.
  • For table footnotes, use the lower case superscripts in alphabetical sequence (a, b, c, d, etc.).
  • Identify all statistical measures of variations such as standard deviation and standard error of the mean
  • Do not extend the ordinate or the abscissa (or the explanatory lettering) beyond the graph’s demands
  • Do not use internal horizontal and vertical rules to separate columns or subheadings
  • Do not use periods (except after No. for number)

Please note: If you use data from another published or unpublished source, it is the author’s responsibility to obtain permission and acknowledge fully. ARP Press staff can help advise on whether permission is necessary and can help obtain it.

Units of Measurement

Measurements of length, height, weight, and volume should be reported in metric units (meter, kilogram, liter) or their decimal multiples. All hematologic and clinical chemistry measurements should be reported both in the metric system and as SI units, the latter in parenthesis.


  • Keep abbreviations to a minimum. Do not abbreviate a term that is used only a few times.
  • Use only standard abbreviations.
  • When planning to use an abbreviation, introduce it by spelling out the word or term first, followed by the abbreviation within parentheses.
  • Units of measurement are abbreviated when used with numerical values, but not otherwise.
  • The proper choice of article should relate to the sound of the first letter of the abbreviation, not the sound of the first letter of the spelled out term (e.g., an ml, not a ml for milliliter.)



Spell out fractions without a dash. Example: one third; one half


Hyphen Use

  • Temporary compounds: decision-making methods or methods of decision making
  • Adjectival compounds: long-term therapy or therapy was long term; B-cell marker or marker of B cells
  • Two nouns together: albumin-globulin ratio Two colors: blue-grey eyes
  • Cases of ambiguity: re-treat, de-emphasize
  • Do not use a hyphen when adjectives and adverbs end in “ly”: highly developed species


Common Word Choice Usage

  • Words derived from proper nouns start with a lower case letter: Addison disease....addisonian crisis; Candida. candidiasis
  • Refer to male or female adult human beings as men or women, not males or females.
  • Avoid redundant words: adequate enough (enough should be deleted); eliminate altogether (altogether should be deleted); skin rash (delete skin)
  • Genes are italicized
  • Plurals of organisms are not italicized: Staphylococcus aureus staphylococci
  • Eponymous terms do not use possessive: Cushing disease, Crohn disease, not Cushing’s disease. Lower case initial letters: mullerian, nabothian, cesarean



The value of any atlas resides primarily in the quality of its images. Avoid reprinting images from previously published works as ARP Press strives to publish the most current images possible.

Please adhere to the following Digital Image Format Guidelines:

  • Original source: actual tissues or microscopic slides, NOT images scanned from other media
  • File format: TIFF in Macintosh byte order, no LZW compression or TIFF in IBM PC, no LZW compression
  • Color Format: CMYK or RGB
  • DPI: 300 dpi (or 120 pixels per cm); Size in Pixels: 1200 x 1800 pixels; Print Size: 4” x 6”
  • Anticipated file size: 3MB or more

In the files and in the text, number the images as Figures according to ARP Press style (e.g., [CHAPTER#]-[FIGURE# in order of appearance]. Be sure to include a corresponding list of figure legends with each chapter.


Indexing occurs once page numbers are set during the Draft 3 phase. The Editorial Office will index each Atlas but welcomes suggestions for key words from authors.


References are cited in the text and are listed at the end of each chapter in the order they appear in the text. When listing references, follow JAMA style (examples follow) and abbreviate names of journals according to Index Medicus. General tips include:

  • Avoid citing case reports and try to have a concise bibliography.
  • Abstracts and Letters to the Editor should be identified as such.
  • References to articles “in press” (properly identified as to the journal) are acceptable but work “in preparation” or “submitted” is not.
  • Keep quotations of personal communications and abstracts to a minimum. Personal observations by the author are permitted in the text and are not to be cited in the bibliography.
  • Use of comments in parentheses following individual references is discouraged. • The word Pathology is abbreviated Pathol (not Path) when part of a journal title.
  • Journal titles consisting of only one word are not abbreviated (thus, the Australian journal Pathology should be listed as Pathology, not as Pathol; the same is true for Histopathology).
  • Accent marks, hyphens, apostrophes, and umlauts present in proper names (e.g., authors’ names and titles written in languages other than English) should be retained.
  • Hyphenated last names should be listed alphabetically under the first part of the name (e.g., Al- bores-Saavedra should be listed under A) 
  • The Publications Office encourages the use of reference management software, such as Reference Manager or EndNote, for the preparation of references.
  • The Publications Office uses the American Medical Association (AMA) Style Guide. When exporting your electronic reference library from Reference Manager to a Microsoft Word document, choose Output Style “JAMA.”

Examples of Reference Types (AMA Style)

Note: List all authors/and or editors up to 6; when 7 or more, list only the first 3 followed by “et al.”

Standard Journal Article

Davis JT, Allen HD, Powers JD, Cohen DM. Population requirements for capitation planning in pediatric cardiac surgery. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1996;150:257-9.

No Author Given

NIH Consensus Development Panel on Cochlear Implants in Adults and Children. Cochlear implants in adults and children. JAMA 1995;274:1955-61.

Journal Supplement

Lagios MD. Evaluation of surrogate endpoint biomarkers for ductal carcinoma in situ. J Cell Biochem 1994;19(Suppl):186-8.

Book, Personal Author(s)

Sherlock S, Dooley J. Diseases of the Liver and Biliary System. 9th ed. Oxford, England: Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1993.

Book, Editor, Compiler, Chairman as Author

Sutcliffe AJ, ed. The New York Public Library Writer’s Guide to Style and Usage. New York: NY: HarperCollins Publishers Inc; 1994

Chapter in a Book

Cole BR. Cystinosis and cystinuria. In: Jacobson HR, Striker GE, Klahr S, eds. The principles and practice of nephrology. Philadelphia, Pa: BC Decker Inc;1991:396-403.

Published Proceedings Paper

DuPont B. Bone marrow transplantation in severe combined immunodeficiency with an unrelated MLC compatible donor. In: White JH, Smith R, eds. Proceedings of the third annual meeting of the International Society for Experimental Hematology. Houston, Tex: International Society for Experimental Hematology;1974: 44–46.

Monograph in a Series

Goligorsky MS, ed. Acute Renal Failure: New Concepts and Therapeutic Strategies. New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone; 1995. Stein JH, ed. Contemporary Issues in Nephrology; No. 30.

Government Bulletins

Clinical Practice Guideline Number 5: Depression in Primary Care, 2: Treatment of Major Depression. Rockville, Md: Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, US Dept. of Health and Human Services; 1993. AHCPR publication 93-0551.

Dissertation or Thesis

Knoll EG. Mental Evaluation and the Science of Language: Darwin, Müller, and Romanes on the Development of the Human Mind [dissertation]. Chicago, Ill: Committee on the Conceptual Foundations of Science, University of Chicago; 1987.

Newspaper Article

Gianelli DM. AMA launching ethics institute for research, outreach projects. American Medical News. November 4, 1996:1, 75.

Other Tips about References

The AFIP Atlas of Tumor Pathology and publications of the World Health Organization are frequently incorrectly cited. Here are examples of the correct way to cite them:

Rosai J, Carcangiu ML, DeLellis RA. Tumors of the thyroid glands. AFIP Atlas of Tumor Pathology, 3rd Series, Fascicle 5. Washington, DC: American Registry of Pathology; 1992.

Shanmugaratnam K. Histologic typing of upper respiratory tract tumours. International Histological Classification of Tumours No. 19. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1978.

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