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Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 19
Published: 01 February 2024
10.55418/9781933477428-18
ISBN-10: 1-933477-42-3
ISBN: 978-1-933477-42-8
... heterogeneous group of pigmented melanomas with significant interobserver variability as to whether a tumor has blue nevus-like features or not. This chapter focuses on melanomas related to blue nevi, either by documentation of a shared molecular pathway or strong evidence indicating that the melanoma is most...
Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 19
Published: 01 February 2024
10.55418/9781933477428-05
ISBN-10: 1-933477-42-3
ISBN: 978-1-933477-42-8
...The category of nevi of special site is useful to address unusual or atypical histopathologic features of melanocytic nevi that tend to be associated with various anatomic sites ( 1 – 4 ). It is relevant for pathologists to be aware of the spectrum of site-related atypical features...
Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 19
Published: 01 February 2024
10.55418/9781933477428-23
ISBN-10: 1-933477-42-3
ISBN: 978-1-933477-42-8
... factors of primary cutaneous melanomas; prognostic issues related to lymph nodes and distant sites are not discussed. Clinical Parameters A number of clinical parameters affect the outcome of patients, such as old age, male gender, head and neck location, immune suppression, and co-morbidities ( 1...
Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 19
Published: 01 February 2024
10.55418/9781933477428-11
ISBN-10: 1-933477-42-3
ISBN: 978-1-933477-42-8
... sheet-like aggregates of melanophages. The lesion may be associated with spontaneous or treatment-related tumor regression or primary or metastatic melanoma. In contrast to PEM, the pigment-laden macrophages of tumoral melanosis tend to be smaller, with smaller nuclei with inconspicuous nucleoli. Large...
Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 19
Published: 01 February 2024
10.55418/9781933477428-15
ISBN-10: 1-933477-42-3
ISBN: 978-1-933477-42-8
... melanoma in situ may be focal or prominent, but for a tumor to qualify as nodular melanoma, the intraepidermal melanoma cells should not extend beyond the periphery of the invasive tumor nodule at the time of diagnosis ( figs. 15-2 , 15-3 ). To avoid pitfalls related to partial sampling...
Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 19
Published: 01 February 2024
10.55418/9781933477428-13
ISBN-10: 1-933477-42-3
ISBN: 978-1-933477-42-8
... epidermis may lead to an overestimate of tumor thickness. A more accurate measurement for prognosis is the distance from the center of the follicle where the melanoma in situ is found to the most peripheral perifollicular stromal tumor cell. Perineural invasion is commonly seen, in part related...
Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 19
Published: 01 February 2024
10.55418/9781933477428-21
ISBN-10: 1-933477-42-3
ISBN: 978-1-933477-42-8
... ). Diagnostic pitfalls are usually related to partial biopsies, in which only the sarcomatoid component is seen. In most cases, review of the completely excised tumor and the use of immunohistochemical studies permit a definitive diagnosis. MELANOMA WITH SARCOMATOID DIFFERENTIATION Figure 21-7 MELANOMA...
Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 19
Published: 01 February 2024
10.55418/9781933477428-06
ISBN-10: 1-933477-42-3
ISBN: 978-1-933477-42-8
... reasonable. NEVI CHANGING UNDER THERAPY Changes Related to BRAF Inhibitors New primary melanomas have been reported to occur in patients undergoing treatment with BRAF inhibitors ( 23 – 25 ). Thus, a new or changing pigmented lesion in a patient receiving such treatment prompts concern about melanoma...
Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 19
Published: 01 February 2024
10.55418/9781933477428-16
ISBN-10: 1-933477-42-3
ISBN: 978-1-933477-42-8
.... This is in large part related to anatomic site-related limitations in margin clearance and perineural invasion, but historically probably also to the difficulty of margin assessment and false-negative readings by pathologists. Since the tumors commonly occur in the head and neck region, options for wide and deep...
Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 19
Published: 01 February 2024
10.55418/9781933477428-14
ISBN-10: 1-933477-42-3
ISBN: 978-1-933477-42-8
... Surgical excision is the treatment of choice for most lesions. As for other melanomas, sentinel lymph node biopsy may be used for staging. Acral melanomas are associated with a worse prognosis than truncal and head and neck melanomas ( 33 – 38 ). This is in large part related to the fact that at the time...
Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 19
Published: 01 February 2024
10.55418/9781933477428-01
ISBN-10: 1-933477-42-3
ISBN: 978-1-933477-42-8
... lesions are also seen in association with therapy-related hyperpigmentation, such as with psoralen and ultraviolet A, imatinib, and calcineurin inhibitors ( 4 ). Lentigo-like lesions may also be found as a pigmented macule overlying a scar (e.g., recurrent pigmentation after prior biopsy) ( fig. 1-7...
Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 19
Published: 01 February 2024
10.55418/9781933477428-09
ISBN-10: 1-933477-42-3
ISBN: 978-1-933477-42-8
...-like growth of the tumor, sometimes associated with a lymphocytic infiltrate, is also a clue for melanoma. In diagnostically challenging cases (the diagnostic difficulty is usually related to a superficial partial biopsy), genomic analysis may be of some help. The lack of any chromosomal aberrations...
Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 19
Published: 01 February 2024
10.55418/9781933477428-08
ISBN-10: 1-933477-42-3
ISBN: 978-1-933477-42-8
... active tumor cells. However, the presence of necrosis per se is not proof of malignancy. Some lesions of CBN contain foci of ischemic or traumatic necrosis, for example, related to prior fine needle biopsy (see fig. 8-20 ). In problematic cases (CBN with atypia versus melanoma), cytogenetic analysis may...
Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 19
Published: 01 February 2024
10.55418/9781933477428-04
ISBN-10: 1-933477-42-3
ISBN: 978-1-933477-42-8
... not low-grade dysplastic nevi, represent a common precursor of melanoma or that an individual dysplastic nevus has a high risk for transformation to melanoma. The risk of patients with numerous dysplastic nevi is more likely related to total nevus count than the clinical or pathologic nevus phenotype ( 18...
Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 19
Published: 01 February 2024
10.55418/9781933477428-22
ISBN-10: 1-933477-42-3
ISBN: 978-1-933477-42-8
.... Wagner in 1864 ( 18 ), is a rare complication of metastatic melanoma characterized by slate blue-gray or brown discoloration of the skin. It usually occurs in the setting of widespread metastatic disease and is likely related to tumor necrosis. Histologically, the skin shows diffuse melanin pigment...
Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 19
Published: 01 February 2024
10.55418/9781933477428-10
ISBN-10: 1-933477-42-3
ISBN: 978-1-933477-42-8
...) lack nuclear BAP1 expression. BAP1-inactivated melanocytic tumors (BIMT) commonly harbor BRAF V600E mutations, but they may also be associated with NRAS or other mutations. The presence of multiple BIMTs may reflect a BAP1 germline mutation and related tumor predisposition...
Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 19
Published: 01 February 2024
10.55418/9781933477428-20
ISBN-10: 1-933477-42-3
ISBN: 978-1-933477-42-8
... are typical for melanomas that develop in large (20 to 40 cm projected adulthood diameter) or giant (over 40 cm projected adulthood diameter) congenital melanocytic nevi. MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS Conventional Adult-Type Melanomas. The spectrum of microscopic features and related diagnostic criteria are similar...
Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 19
Published: 01 February 2024
10.55418/9781933477428-03
ISBN-10: 1-933477-42-3
ISBN: 978-1-933477-42-8
... is present within a lymphatic space in association with an ordinary nevus ( fig. 3-22 ). This may reflect pseudoinvasion related to tangential sectioning of a nevus part projecting into a lymphatic lumen or an intravascular nevus cell embolus, in which the melanocyte aggregate is completely detached from...
Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 18
Published: 01 January 2024
10.55418/9781933477367-02
ISBN-10: 1-933477-36-9
ISBN: 978-1-933477-36-7
... in the setting of granulomatous mastitis. Fungal infections involving the breast are less common. There are rare reports of parasitic and filarial infections of the breast, including sparganosis and dirofilariasis ( 12 ). IgG4-Related Disease IgG4-related disease, which is characterized by obliterative...
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AGE-<span class="search-highlight">RELATED</span> CHANGES IN EPICARDIAL CORONARY ARTERIES AND ASCENDING AORTA  Le...
Published: 15 November 2023
AGE-RELATED CHANGES IN EPICARDIAL CORONARY ARTERIES AND ASCENDING AORTA Figure 1-38 AGE-RELATED CHANGES IN EPICARDIAL CORONARY ARTERIES AND ASCENDING AORTA Left: Anterior view of moderately dilated ascending aorta and tortuous left anterior descending (LAD) (arrows). Right: Anterior view of clos... More about this image found in AGE-RELATED CHANGES IN EPICARDIAL CORONARY ARTERIES AND ASCENDING AORTA Le...