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INVASIVE BREAST CARCINOMA, NST, GRADE 1  A: Over 75 <span class="search-highlight">percent</span> of this tumor i...
Published: 01 January 2024
INVASIVE BREAST CARCINOMA, NST, GRADE 1 Figure 8-10 INVASIVE BREAST CARCINOMA, NST, GRADE 1 A: Over 75 percent of this tumor is composed of tubules. B: The tumor cell nuclei are of low nuclear grade; no mitotic figures are seen. C: As would be anticipated, the tumor is strongly and diffusely es... More about this image found in INVASIVE BREAST CARCINOMA, NST, GRADE 1 A: Over 75 percent of this tumor i...
Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 19
Published: 01 February 2024
10.55418/9781933477428-14
ISBN-10: 1-933477-42-3
ISBN: 978-1-933477-42-8
... ). In Southeast Asia, for example, more than half of the primary cutaneous melanomas occur at acral sites, with subungual melanoma accounting for 10 to 20 percent ( 11 – 13 ). In the United States, 2 to 3 percent of melanomas are acral ( 11 ). CLINICAL FEATURES Acral melanoma occurs across a wide age range...
Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 19
Published: 01 February 2024
10.55418/9781933477428-12
ISBN-10: 1-933477-42-3
ISBN: 978-1-933477-42-8
... differentiation antigens. The expression of p16 is variable. In many melanomas, there is loss of p16, but some melanomas show strong immunoreactivity for p16. Diffuse PRAME (preferentially expressed antigen in melanoma) expression is strongly associated with melanoma, and is found in approximately 90 percent...
Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 19
Published: 01 February 2024
10.55418/9781933477428-20
ISBN-10: 1-933477-42-3
ISBN: 978-1-933477-42-8
... recognized: conventional adult-type melanoma, Spitz melanoma, and melanoma associated with a large or giant congenital melanocytic nevus ( 1 , 2 ). EPIDEMIOLOGY Less than 1 percent of all melanomas occur in the pediatric population ( 3 ). Factors associated with an increased risk...
Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 19
Published: 01 February 2024
10.55418/9781933477428-23
ISBN-10: 1-933477-42-3
ISBN: 978-1-933477-42-8
...PROGNOSTIC FACTORS Once a diagnosis of melanoma has been established, it is important for the pathologist to provide prognostic information for patients and their clinical care team. At the time of diagnosis approximately 90 percent of individuals with primary cutaneous melanoma have no evidence...
Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 19
Published: 01 February 2024
10.55418/9781933477428-02
ISBN-10: 1-933477-42-3
ISBN: 978-1-933477-42-8
... (medium 2), 20 to 30 cm (large 1), 30 to 40 cm (large 2), 40 to 60 cm (giant 1), and over 60 cm (giant 2) ( 5 – 7 ). To calculate the adult size, the size in infancy is multiplied by 1.7 (head), 3.3 (legs), or 2.8 (other sites). Approximately 75 percent of patients with a large or giant CMN have...
Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 19
Published: 01 February 2024
10.55418/9781933477428-13
ISBN-10: 1-933477-42-3
ISBN: 978-1-933477-42-8
... proliferation,” may be used, with a comment discussing to what extent LM is suspected. EPIDEMIOLOGY Worldwide, LM and LMM account for 5 to 15 percent of melanomas ( 8 ). LM primarily affects individuals with fair skin and chronic cumulative sun exposure. In the United States, the incidence of LM is estimated...
Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 19
Published: 01 February 2024
10.55418/9781933477428-05
ISBN-10: 1-933477-42-3
ISBN: 978-1-933477-42-8
... in lighter-skinned individuals. They are more often found in women than men, typically manifesting in the second and third decades of life ( 5 ). Their frequency ranges from less than 10 percent to one third of the population. Most acral nevi are flat, well-circumscribed, and uniformly light or dark brown...
Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 19
Published: 01 February 2024
10.55418/9781933477428-08
ISBN-10: 1-933477-42-3
ISBN: 978-1-933477-42-8
... as of the trigeminal nerve (periorbital region, forehead, temple, cheek, and nose), as well as conjunctiva, retina, periorbital soft tissue, and nasal mucosa. The condition usually presents unilaterally at birth or in childhood, but delayed onset in adolescence may occur. Approximately 0.01 to 0.03 percent of Asians...
Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 19
Published: 01 February 2024
10.55418/9781933477428-07
ISBN-10: 1-933477-42-3
ISBN: 978-1-933477-42-8
..., and loss of expression of tumor suppressors. HRAS Aberrations. Up to 20 percent of Spitz nevi are associated with copy number gains and/or activating mutations in HRAS, which is located at 11p15.5 ( 15 , 25 ). Spitz nevi with this genomic alteration tend to display desmoplastic features...
Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 19
Published: 01 February 2024
10.55418/9781933477428-11
ISBN-10: 1-933477-42-3
ISBN: 978-1-933477-42-8
... nodes draining the site of the primary skin tumor. Sentinel lymph node (SLN) involvement has been reported in approximately 40 percent of patients with a PEM who had undergone this procedure ( 2 ). However, since experience has taught that the SLN status does not seem to have any prognostic...
Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 18
Published: 01 January 2024
10.55418/9781933477367-10
ISBN-10: 1-933477-36-9
ISBN: 978-1-933477-36-7
... cancers presenting in men show many similarities to those occurring in women, with the notable exception of more frequent presentation at high stage. Breast cancer represents less than 1 percent of cancers occurring in men. Clinical Features. While breast cancer is rare in men, there are several risk...
Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 19
Published: 01 February 2024
10.55418/9781933477428-19
ISBN-10: 1-933477-42-3
ISBN: 978-1-933477-42-8
... prominently displays features associated with melanoma (marked asymmetry, nuclear pleomorphism, deep or atypical mitoses), ancillary studies are often needed to distinguish between melanocytoma and melanoma. For example, cytogenetic analysis documenting homozygous deletions of p16 in 95 percent of the tumor...
Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 19
Published: 01 February 2024
10.55418/9781933477428-04
ISBN-10: 1-933477-42-3
ISBN: 978-1-933477-42-8
... is variable and tends to be restricted to junctional or superficial dermal melanocytes, with a gradient of diminished to absent labeling from the papillary to the reticular dermis ( 11 ). The Ki-67 labeling index tends to be low (less than 2 percent) in most cases. Immunoreactivity for p16 is variable, from...
Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 19
Published: 01 February 2024
10.55418/9781933477428-06
ISBN-10: 1-933477-42-3
ISBN: 978-1-933477-42-8
... is often used because the lesions usually come to clinical attention as recurrent pigmentation at sites of scars. Clinical Features. The incidence of nevus persistence varies from 0.3 to 27.0 percent depending on the initial procedure type, the cellularity of the nevus, and whether or not it extended...
Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 19
Published: 01 February 2024
10.55418/9781933477428-22
ISBN-10: 1-933477-42-3
ISBN: 978-1-933477-42-8
... metastatic to the skin usually occurs in the context of a known prior or concurrent primary or metastatic melanoma. While the skin and subcutis are the sites of first distant metastasis in 10 to 15 percent of patients with an unknown primary, it is rare for a solitary dermal metastasis to be the first...
Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 19
Published: 01 February 2024
10.55418/9781933477428-16
ISBN-10: 1-933477-42-3
ISBN: 978-1-933477-42-8
... – 5 ). In mixed variants, a part of the tumor is densely cellular and lacks prominent or any fibroplasia. CLINICAL FEATURES DM accounts for less than 4 percent of all melanomas ( 6 – 9 ). It most often develops in chronically sun-damaged skin of the head and neck region of elderly Caucasians...
Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 19
Published: 01 February 2024
10.55418/9781933477428-03
ISBN-10: 1-933477-42-3
ISBN: 978-1-933477-42-8
... the papillary to the reticular dermis ( 20 ). The Ki-67 labeling index tends to be low (less than 2 percent) in most case, but there are exceptions, such as in actively growing nevi. Immunoreactvity for p16 is variable, from homogeneous to partial or rare absent labeling ( 21 ). Most ordinary nevi are negative...
Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 18
Published: 01 January 2024
10.55418/9781933477367-08
ISBN-10: 1-933477-36-9
ISBN: 978-1-933477-36-7
..., with thresholds of over 75 percent and less than 10 percent of tumor forming tubules, for scores of 1 and 3, respectively; score 2 falls in the mid-range (10 to 75 percent). To fulfill the criteria, the tubule must have a well-developed central lumen, with polarization of the surrounding malignant epithelial...
Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 18
Published: 01 January 2024
10.55418/9781933477367-04
ISBN-10: 1-933477-36-9
ISBN: 978-1-933477-36-7
... as a neoplastic proliferation of dyshesive, monomorphic epithelial cells that distend more than half the involved acini of the terminal duct lobular units (TDLUs) by greater than 50 percent. Atypical lobular hyperplasia (ALH), by definition, is lesser amounts of the same population of atypical epithelial...