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Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 11
Publisher: American Registry of Pathology
Published: 01 June 2022
DOI: 10.55418/9781933477190-6
ISBN-10: 1-933477-19-9
ISBN: 978-1-933477-19-0
.... The majority of patients are HIV-positive men in their fourth to sixth decades who have sex with men. PEL accounts for 3 to 4 percent of HIV-associated lymphomas ( 10 , 12 ). It occasionally occurs in immunosuppressed organ transplant recipients ( 13 , 14 ), the elderly ( 15 ), and in areas of high HHV8...
Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 11
Publisher: American Registry of Pathology
Published: 01 June 2022
DOI: 10.55418/9781933477190-3
ISBN-10: 1-933477-19-9
ISBN: 978-1-933477-19-0
... pattern (over 50 percent of sample), and pleomorphic ( 156 , 166 ), transitional ( 143 , 165 , 167 ), and rhabdoid ( 163 ) cytologic features. Conversely, myxoid stroma, when present in over 50 percent of the sample ( 155 ), appears to confer a better prognosis, and lymphohistiocytoid cytology, where...
Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 11
Publisher: American Registry of Pathology
Published: 01 June 2022
DOI: 10.55418/9781933477190-5
ISBN-10: 1-933477-19-9
ISBN: 978-1-933477-19-0
... also be seen ( 58 , 67 – 69 ). TLE-1 is reported as having high specificity for synovial sarcoma ( 70 ), although in pleural tumors, TLE-1 staining of mesothelioma may occur, so positive staining should not be regarded as 100 percent specific ( 71 ). More recently antibodies targeting the SS18-SSX...
Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 11
Publisher: American Registry of Pathology
Published: 01 June 2022
DOI: 10.55418/9781933477190-4
ISBN-10: 1-933477-19-9
ISBN: 978-1-933477-19-0
... mesotheliomas, other than being unifocal. The term solitary mesothelioma should no longer be used. Clinical Findings. Some cases are incidental findings, while others present with chest pain, dyspnea, and systemic symptoms. Age range is variable: in one series it ranged from 6 to 82 years, with 75 percent...
Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 11
Publisher: American Registry of Pathology
Published: 01 June 2022
DOI: 10.55418/9781933477190-8
ISBN-10: 1-933477-19-9
ISBN: 978-1-933477-19-0
... induce significant eosinophilia within soft tissues or lung parenchyma. Eosinophilia may also be seen in effusions: an eosinophilic effusion is defined as greater than 10 percent eosinophils, with a variety of reported causes including air or blood in the pleural spaces and drug reactions ( 37 – 40...
Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 11
Publisher: American Registry of Pathology
Published: 01 June 2022
DOI: 10.55418/9781933477190-1
ISBN-10: 1-933477-19-9
ISBN: 978-1-933477-19-0
... the former is greater than the pressure in the pulmonary circulation ( 22 ). The lymphatic vessels of the parietal pleura reabsorb 10 to 20 percent of the pleural fluid. Larger molecules (e.g., proteins) enter directly into the lymphatic channels. Particulate matter and cells are also taken up...
Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 11
Publisher: American Registry of Pathology
Published: 01 June 2022
DOI: 10.55418/9781933477190-7
ISBN-10: 1-933477-19-9
ISBN: 978-1-933477-19-0
...-appendiceal sites ( 45 ). About 20 percent of mucinous neoplasms result in pseudomyxoma peritonei ( 46 ). Some series show a female predominance ( 47 ). Secondary involvement of the peritoneal cavity by carcinoma, mostly adenocarcinomas, includes tumors of the ovary, endometrium, stomach, colon, pancreas...
Images
MACROVESICULAR STEATOSIS  A: This biopsy shows minimal macrovesicular steat...
Published: 01 January 2022
MACROVESICULAR STEATOSIS Figure 9-5 MACROVESICULAR STEATOSIS A: This biopsy shows minimal macrovesicular steatosis with approximately 1 percent macrovesicular steatosis (10X magnification). B: This biopsy of mild macrovesicular steatosis shows approximately 10 percent macrovesicular steatosis (1... More
Images
INTERFACE ACTIVITY: DIFFUSE  This portal tract has interface activity invol...
Published: 01 January 2022
INTERFACE ACTIVITY: DIFFUSE Figure 1-62 INTERFACE ACTIVITY: DIFFUSE This portal tract has interface activity involving more than 50 percent of its circumference. More
Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 10
Publisher: American Registry of Pathology
Published: 01 January 2022
DOI: 10.55418/9781933477183-12
ISBN-10: 1-933477-18-0
ISBN: 978-1-933477-18-3
... be affected. It is seen in up to 2.5 percent of intensive care unit admissions; 57 percent of patients with liver enzyme levels of greater than 1,000 IU/L have ischemic hepatitis ( 103 ). A hypotensive event is documented in only 52.9 percent. Roughly one quarter of cases are associated with sepsis ( 103...
Images
LARGE DROPLET STEATOSIS  Left: Freezing artifact in donor liver may hamper ...
Published: 01 January 2022
LARGE DROPLET STEATOSIS Figure 11-1 LARGE DROPLET STEATOSIS Left: Freezing artifact in donor liver may hamper assessment of steatosis. Right: Permanent section of the same donor liver, showing approximately 20 percent large droplet fat. Small droplet fat that does not displace the hepatocyte nuc... More
Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 10
Publisher: American Registry of Pathology
Published: 01 January 2022
DOI: 10.55418/9781933477183-13
ISBN-10: 1-933477-18-0
ISBN: 978-1-933477-18-3
... in 5 percent of adults with CVID in one series ( 8 ) Primary sclerosing cholangitis Hepatopulmonary syndrome secondary to cryptogenic liver disease Portal hypertension, generally due to nodular regenerative hyperplasia (NRH) Cirrhosis Liver failure Table 13-1 LIVER CONDITIONS IN INBORN...
Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 10
Publisher: American Registry of Pathology
Published: 01 January 2022
DOI: 10.55418/9781933477183-11
ISBN-10: 1-933477-18-0
ISBN: 978-1-933477-18-3
... Figure 11-1 LARGE DROPLET STEATOSIS Left: Freezing artifact in donor liver may hamper assessment of steatosis. Right: Permanent section of the same donor liver, showing approximately 20 percent large droplet fat. Small droplet fat that does not displace the hepatocyte nucleus should not be included...
Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 10
Publisher: American Registry of Pathology
Published: 01 January 2022
DOI: 10.55418/9781933477183-5
ISBN-10: 1-933477-18-0
ISBN: 978-1-933477-18-3
... percent of fulminant hepatitis cases in children result from autoimmune hepatitis ( 43 ). In addition to an acute presentation (about 45 percent of all pediatric autoimmune hepatitis cases), children present with nonspecific findings of progressive fatigue, anorexia, weight loss, and sometimes jaundice...
Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 10
Publisher: American Registry of Pathology
Published: 01 January 2022
DOI: 10.55418/9781933477183-9
ISBN-10: 1-933477-18-0
ISBN: 978-1-933477-18-3
...Table 9-1 KEY POINTS FOR FAT EVALUATION Grade the large droplet or macrovesicular component Grade the percent of fat at low power (for example 4X or 10X) Fat is classified as minimal (<5 percent), mild (5-33 percent), moderate (34-66 percent), or severe (>66 percent) At least...
Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 10
Publisher: American Registry of Pathology
Published: 01 January 2022
DOI: 10.55418/9781933477183-2
ISBN-10: 1-933477-18-0
ISBN: 978-1-933477-18-3
... the diagnosis. Treatment and Prognosis. HSV hepatitis is associated with liver failure in most cases and mortality exceeds 70 percent ( 82 , 87 ). Early diagnosis and timely treatment with antiviral agents like acyclovir are crucial for a favorable outcome. Preemptive treatment with acyclovir may be used...
Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 10
Publisher: American Registry of Pathology
Published: 01 January 2022
DOI: 10.55418/9781933477183-8
ISBN-10: 1-933477-18-0
ISBN: 978-1-933477-18-3
... Liver Injury. Mild elevation of transaminases and hyperbilirubinemia are observed in 5 to 10 percent of cases treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors directed against CTLA-4 (ipilimumab) and PDL-1 (pembrolizumab, nivolumab), while clinically evident hepatitis is less common ( 110 ). Most described...
Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 10
Publisher: American Registry of Pathology
Published: 01 January 2022
DOI: 10.55418/9781933477183-7
ISBN-10: 1-933477-18-0
ISBN: 978-1-933477-18-3
... in about 40 percent of cases and in the lobules in 20 percent of cases ( 15 , 39 ). Caseating granulomas are not part of the PBC pattern of injury and instead suggest infection. Aggregates of fibrotic granulomas are also not a good fit for PBC and suggest an alternative diagnosis such as sarcoidosis...
Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 10
Publisher: American Registry of Pathology
Published: 01 January 2022
DOI: 10.55418/9781933477183-6
ISBN-10: 1-933477-18-0
ISBN: 978-1-933477-18-3
... and cholangitis ( 30 ). The renal disease and the liver disease progress at independent rates. By 10 years of age, 60 percent of patients require renal transplantation, while 10 percent require liver transplantation ( 31 ). Cholangiocarcinomas also develop in both congenital hepatic fibrosis and Caroli disease...
Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 10
Publisher: American Registry of Pathology
Published: 01 January 2022
DOI: 10.55418/9781933477183-4
ISBN-10: 1-933477-18-0
ISBN: 978-1-933477-18-3
... A infection, and acute hepatitis E infection. The granulomas are noncaseating and can be epithelioid or rarely, fibrin ring, if the background liver shows fatty change. Granulomas are well documented with chronic viral hepatitis, found in about 1 percent of liver biopsy specimens from individuals with chronic...