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Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 13
Published: 01 November 2022
DOI: 10.55418/9781933477251-1
ISBN-10: 1-933477-25-3
ISBN: 978-1-933477-25-1
...NORMAL PITUITARY GLAND Embryology The human pituitary gland is in essence two separate but intimately related organs: the posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis) and the anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis). The gland is recognizable grossly by the third month of fetal development ( 1 – 3...
Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 13
Published: 01 November 2022
DOI: 10.55418/9781933477251-2
ISBN-10: 1-933477-25-3
ISBN: 978-1-933477-25-1
...NORMAL PARATHYROID GLAND Embryology and Anatomy The parathyroid glands are derived from the third and fourth branchial pouches ( 1 ). The superior parathyroid glands are derived from proliferations along the lateral portion of the fourth branchial pouch. They are identified about 1 cm superior...
Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 13
Published: 01 November 2022
DOI: 10.55418/9781933477251-3
ISBN-10: 1-933477-25-3
ISBN: 978-1-933477-25-1
...NORMAL THYROID GLAND Embryology The thyroid gland begins to develop between weeks 2 and 3 of gestation, and development is completed by week 11 ( 1 ). The gland develops from three structures: one median anlage and two lateral anlagen. The median anlage arises from a portion of endoderm...
Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 13
Published: 01 November 2022
DOI: 10.55418/9781933477251-4
ISBN-10: 1-933477-25-3
ISBN: 978-1-933477-25-1
...NORMAL ADRENAL GLAND Embryology The adrenal gland consists of two embryologically and physiologically distinct parts: the cortex, which is responsible for the production of steroid hormones; and the medulla, which is responsible for synthesizing catecholamines. The adrenal cortex is derived from...
Images
NORMAL ADULT THYROID <span class="search-highlight">GLAND</span>  Ultrasound of the normal thyroid <span class="search-highlight">gland</span> shows th...
Published: 01 November 2022
NORMAL ADULT THYROID GLAND Figure 3-1 NORMAL ADULT THYROID GLAND Ultrasound of the normal thyroid gland shows the homogeneous nature of the parenchyma. The gland surrounds the anterior aspect of the air-filled trachea (arrow) on this transverse view. More
Images
NORMAL ADULT THYROID <span class="search-highlight">GLAND</span>  Histologic appearance of normal thyroid <span class="search-highlight">gland</span>. ...
Published: 01 November 2022
NORMAL ADULT THYROID GLAND Figure 3-2 NORMAL ADULT THYROID GLAND Histologic appearance of normal thyroid gland. The follicles are roughly round and lined by cuboidal cells. More
Images
NORMAL ADULT THYROID <span class="search-highlight">GLAND</span>  Thyroid <span class="search-highlight">gland</span> from a 70-year-old patient. The c...
Published: 01 November 2022
NORMAL ADULT THYROID GLAND Figure 3-3 NORMAL ADULT THYROID GLAND Thyroid gland from a 70-year-old patient. The colloid appears more flocculent and basophilic than normal. These changes are within normal limits but are more common in older individuals. More
Images
PITUITARY <span class="search-highlight">GLAND</span>: NORMAL HISTOLOGY  The topographic distribution of various ...
Published: 01 November 2022
PITUITARY GLAND: NORMAL HISTOLOGY Figure 1-1 PITUITARY GLAND: NORMAL HISTOLOGY The topographic distribution of various pituitary cell types in the adenohypophysis and the adjacent pars nervosa (PN) of the neurohypophysis. The growth hormone (GH)-producing acidophil cells are predominantly in the ... More
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ANTERIOR PITUITARY <span class="search-highlight">GLAND</span>: NORMAL HISTOLOGY  Clusters of various cell types ...
Published: 01 November 2022
ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND: NORMAL HISTOLOGY Figure 1-2 ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND: NORMAL HISTOLOGY Clusters of various cell types are present. A: Reticulin stain highlights the acinar clusters. B: The hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained section shows a mixture of various cell types in the aci... More
Images
PARATHYROID <span class="search-highlight">GLAND</span>  Parathyroid <span class="search-highlight">glands</span> are composed of parenchymal cells and...
Published: 01 November 2022
PARATHYROID GLAND Figure 2-1 PARATHYROID GLAND Parathyroid glands are composed of parenchymal cells and adipose tissue. Parenchymal cells include chief cells, oncocytic/oxyphilic cells, transitional cells, and clear (water clear) cells; mixtures of cell types can be seen (A–D). Parathyroid parenc... More
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HYPERCELLULAR PARATHYROID <span class="search-highlight">GLAND</span>: CYSTIC CHANGE  The parathyroid <span class="search-highlight">glands</span> can ...
Published: 01 November 2022
HYPERCELLULAR PARATHYROID GLAND: CYSTIC CHANGE Figure 2-8 HYPERCELLULAR PARATHYROID GLAND: CYSTIC CHANGE The parathyroid glands can show hemorrhage and cystic change, particularly in larger glands and in those with hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor–associated disease more so than sporadic hyperparath... More
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HYPERCELLULAR PARATHYROID TISSUE: HEMOSIDERIN  Parathyroid <span class="search-highlight">gland</span> showing he...
Published: 01 November 2022
HYPERCELLULAR PARATHYROID TISSUE: HEMOSIDERIN Figure 2-9 HYPERCELLULAR PARATHYROID TISSUE: HEMOSIDERIN Parathyroid gland showing hemorrhage and hemosiderin deposition (left, right). More
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PARATHYROID AMYLOID  Left: Parathyroid <span class="search-highlight">gland</span> with amyloid stained with H&am...
Published: 01 November 2022
PARATHYROID AMYLOID Figure 2-20 PARATHYROID AMYLOID Left: Parathyroid gland with amyloid stained with H&E. Right: Congo red shows birefringence in amyloid involving the parathyroid gland. More
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RADIATION-INDUCED CHANGES TO THE THYROID <span class="search-highlight">GLAND</span>  A: Radiation exposure may d...
Published: 01 November 2022
RADIATION-INDUCED CHANGES TO THE THYROID GLAND Figure 3-11 RADIATION-INDUCED CHANGES TO THE THYROID GLAND A: Radiation exposure may drive the development of multiple separate microfollicular nodules, many of which show varying degrees of nuclear atypia. B: A typical feature of radiation exposure... More
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SARCOIDOSIS  Left, right: In sarcoidosis involving the thyroid <span class="search-highlight">gland</span>, the g...
Published: 01 November 2022
SARCOIDOSIS Figure 3-15 SARCOIDOSIS Left, right: In sarcoidosis involving the thyroid gland, the granulomas are characteristically located in the collagenous connective tissue of the interstitium. This contrasts strongly with the granulomas of granulomatous subacute (de Quervains) thyroiditis, wh... More
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DYSHORMONOGENETIC GOITER  A: The entire thyroid <span class="search-highlight">gland</span> is abnormal. There ar...
Published: 01 November 2022
DYSHORMONOGENETIC GOITER Figure 3-35 DYSHORMONOGENETIC GOITER A: The entire thyroid gland is abnormal. There are varying areas of hyperplasia, often with an exaggerated lobular architecture. B: Some of the nodular areas are distinct and give the low-power impression of independent growth. C: At... More
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AMYLOIDOSIS OF THE THYROID <span class="search-highlight">GLAND</span>  Left: H&amp;E-stained section shows depos...
Published: 01 November 2022
AMYLOIDOSIS OF THE THYROID GLAND Figure 3-37 AMYLOIDOSIS OF THE THYROID GLAND Left: H&E-stained section shows deposition of amorphous eosinophilic material surrounding the follicles. Right: Apple-green birefringence after Congo red staining of the amyloid under polarized light. More
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NORMAL ADULT ADRENAL <span class="search-highlight">GLAND</span>  Contrast-enhanced computerized tomography (CT) ...
Published: 01 November 2022
NORMAL ADULT ADRENAL GLAND Figure 4-1 NORMAL ADULT ADRENAL GLAND Contrast-enhanced computerized tomography (CT) of the upper abdomen demonstrates the normal left adrenal gland (arrow) as an inverted Y-shaped structure anterior to the upper pole of the left kidney. More
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DEVELOPING FETAL ADRENAL <span class="search-highlight">GLAND</span>  Provisional or fetal adrenal cortex at 3 mo...
Published: 01 November 2022
DEVELOPING FETAL ADRENAL GLAND Figure 4-2 DEVELOPING FETAL ADRENAL GLAND Provisional or fetal adrenal cortex at 3 months of develop ment shows eosinophilic adrenal cortical cells and small nodules of primitive neuroblastic cells admixed with the fetal cortex. More
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NORMAL ADULT ADRENAL <span class="search-highlight">GLAND</span>  Normal adrenal cortex and medulla in an adult s...
Published: 01 November 2022
NORMAL ADULT ADRENAL GLAND Figure 4-3 NORMAL ADULT ADRENAL GLAND Normal adrenal cortex and medulla in an adult shows lipid-rich cortical cells of the zona fasciculata and medullary cells with basophilic cytoplasm adjacent to the central vein. More