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TUMOR STROMA  The character of the tumor stroma can vary. <span class="search-highlight">Alteration</span> of the...
Published: 01 January 2024
TUMOR STROMA Figure 8-13 TUMOR STROMA The character of the tumor stroma can vary. Alteration of the stroma relative to the background breast parenchyma is one feature of malignancy. A: Fibrotic stroma: this stroma is both more cellular and more fibrotic than the background fibrous tissue. B: El... More about this image found in TUMOR STROMA The character of the tumor stroma can vary. Alteration of the...
Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 19
Published: 01 February 2024
10.55418/9781933477428-20
ISBN-10: 1-933477-42-3
ISBN: 978-1-933477-42-8
... tanning or sunbed use, for example, also increases this risk ( 9 ). Most pediatric melanomas develop sporadically, without an associated hereditary trait. Alterations in CDKN2A, the melanoma susceptibility gene, which are found in 25 to 50 percent of adults with familial melanoma, are present...
Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 19
Published: 01 February 2024
10.55418/9781933477428-11
ISBN-10: 1-933477-42-3
ISBN: 978-1-933477-42-8
...   2007 ; 31 : 1764 - 75 . 7. Cohen   JN , Joseph   NM , North   JP , et al . Genomic analysis of pigmented epithelioid melanocytomas reveals recurrent alterations in PRKAR1A, and PRKCA genes . Am J Surg Pathol   2017 ; 41 : 1333 - 46 . 8. Benton   S , Zhao   J , Asadbeigi...
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INVASIVE CARCINOMA  A: Low-grade invasive ductal carcinoma with a relativel...
Published: 01 January 2024
INVASIVE CARCINOMA Figure 6-10 INVASIVE CARCINOMA A: Low-grade invasive ductal carcinoma with a relatively circumscribed growth pattern can be misinterpreted as sclerosing adenosis. B: At higher power, the glands appear more disorganized than would be expected in sclerosing adenosis. In addition... More about this image found in INVASIVE CARCINOMA A: Low-grade invasive ductal carcinoma with a relativel...
Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 19
Published: 01 February 2024
10.55418/9781933477428-14
ISBN-10: 1-933477-42-3
ISBN: 978-1-933477-42-8
... al . Distinct sets of genetic alterations in melanoma . N Engl J Med   2005 ; 353 : 2135 - 47 . 22. Newell   F , Wilmott   JS , Johansson   PA , et al . Whole-genome sequencing of acral melanoma reveals genomic complexity and diversity . Nat Commun   2020 ; 11 : 5259 . 23...
Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 19
Published: 01 February 2024
10.55418/9781933477428-01
ISBN-10: 1-933477-42-3
ISBN: 978-1-933477-42-8
... with fibrous dysplasia and endocrinopathy), and café-au-lait macules. Melanotic macules may also represent a paraneoplastic process ( 12 ). PRIMARY ACQUIRED MELANOSIS Primary acquired melanosis (PAM) without atypia is a term for a conjunctival pigmentary alteration characterized by hyperpigmentation...
Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 19
Published: 01 February 2024
10.55418/9781933477428-04
ISBN-10: 1-933477-42-3
ISBN: 978-1-933477-42-8
... for clinical reasons (e.g., clinical history of change, lesion being an outlier, patient concerns, cosmetic reasons). The situation is different for high-grade dysplastic nevi. Evidence suggests that dysplastic nevi with high-grade atypia and/or genetic alterations in addition to BRAF or NRAS...
Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 19
Published: 01 February 2024
10.55418/9781933477428-06
ISBN-10: 1-933477-42-3
ISBN: 978-1-933477-42-8
... of melanocytes ( 20 ). Dermoscopic alterations associated with phototherapy include new dot/globule formation, darkening, patchy pigmentation, increase in size, widening of the pigment network, and formation of branched streaks ( 21 ). In patients subjected to PUVA therapy, dark brown macules with irregular...
Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 19
Published: 01 February 2024
10.55418/9781933477428-18
ISBN-10: 1-933477-42-3
ISBN: 978-1-933477-42-8
... mutations in blue nevus-like melanoma . Mod Pathol   2017 ; 30 : 928 - 39 . 19. Yilmaz   I , Gamsizkan   M , Sari   SO , et al . Molecular alterations in malignant blue nevi and related blue lesions . Virchows Arch   2015 ; 467 : 723 - 32 . 20. Maize   JC   Jr , McCalmont   TH...
Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 19
Published: 01 February 2024
10.55418/9781933477428-03
ISBN-10: 1-933477-42-3
ISBN: 978-1-933477-42-8
... ), stromal fibrosis, and inflammation. In some lesions there may be peculiar distinct alterations: some or many melanocytes display lipidized cytoplasm ( fig. 3-14 ) and oncocytic or plasmacytoid changes ( fig. 3-15 ). Plasmacytoid refers to an appearance of melanocytes with the nucleus placed eccentrically...
Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 19
Published: 01 February 2024
10.55418/9781933477428-07
ISBN-10: 1-933477-42-3
ISBN: 978-1-933477-42-8
..., and loss of expression of tumor suppressors. HRAS Aberrations. Up to 20 percent of Spitz nevi are associated with copy number gains and/or activating mutations in HRAS, which is located at 11p15.5 ( 15 , 25 ). Spitz nevi with this genomic alteration tend to display desmoplastic features...
Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 19
Published: 01 February 2024
10.55418/9781933477428-08
ISBN-10: 1-933477-42-3
ISBN: 978-1-933477-42-8
... analysis of pigmented epithelioid melanocytomas reveals recurrent alterations in PRKAR1A, and PRKCA genes . Am J Surg Pathol   2017 ; 41 : 1333 - 46 . 44. Antony   FC , Sanclemente   G , Shaikh   H , Trelles   AS , Calonje   E . Pigment synthesizing melanoma (so-called animal type...
Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 18
Published: 01 January 2024
10.55418/9781933477367-07
ISBN-10: 1-933477-36-9
ISBN: 978-1-933477-36-7
... that are the major determinants of the diagnostic category for this group of lesions. Table 7-1 FEATURES DIFFERENTIATING PAPILLARY LESIONS OF THE BREAST Myoepithelial Cells High Molecular Weight Keratin Estrogen Receptor Most Frequently Reported Molecular Alterations Around the Duct Along...
Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 18
Published: 01 January 2024
10.55418/9781933477367-03
ISBN-10: 1-933477-36-9
ISBN: 978-1-933477-36-7
... studies to harbor the same genetic alterations as are seen in lesions of the low-grade breast neoplasia pathway (ADH, low nuclear grade DCIS, lobular carcinoma in situ, and low-grade invasive carcinomas), albeit more limited in number ( 12 – 16 ). Specifically, loss of the long arm of chromosome 16...
Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 18
Published: 01 January 2024
10.55418/9781933477367-06
ISBN-10: 1-933477-36-9
ISBN: 978-1-933477-36-7
... with a relatively circumscribed growth pattern can be misinterpreted as sclerosing adenosis. B: At higher power, the glands appear more disorganized than would be expected in sclerosing adenosis. In addition, the stromal alteration should suggest an invasive process. When sclerosing adenosis is involved...
Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 18
Published: 01 January 2024
10.55418/9781933477367-02
ISBN-10: 1-933477-36-9
ISBN: 978-1-933477-36-7
..., and periductal (B-cell predominant) lymphoid infiltrates, as well as alterations of the collagenous stroma, keloidal-type collagen, and epithelioid myofibroblasts ( fig. 2-3 ) ( 6 ). The findings are subtle, but taken together, this constellation of features is sufficient to suggest the diagnosis. Correlation...
Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 18
Published: 01 January 2024
10.55418/9781933477367-04
ISBN-10: 1-933477-36-9
ISBN: 978-1-933477-36-7
... is known about the molecular alterations of CDH1, the gene encoding E-cadherin, it is now apparent that there are circumstances in which E-cadherin protein is expressed in lobular lesions, albeit reduced or aberrant in pattern (see section on nonclassic variants of LCIS for further discussion...
Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 18
Published: 01 January 2024
10.55418/9781933477367-11
ISBN-10: 1-933477-36-9
ISBN: 978-1-933477-36-7
... been reported. There are no features of prognostic significance. The molecular alteration reported in mammary-type myofibroblastoma is rearrangement or deletion of 13q14, the location of the Rb gene, which results in the aforementioned loss of Rb expression immunohistochemically ( 8 , 12...
Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 18
Published: 01 January 2024
10.55418/9781933477367-08
ISBN-10: 1-933477-36-9
ISBN: 978-1-933477-36-7
... of cases). Alterations in genes involved in DNA repair (BRCA2, ATM, and PTEN) ( 89 ) as well as genes involved in homologous recombination (BRCA1, BRCA2, and RAD51) ( 90 ) are also found in triple-negative and BRCA1-associated breast cancers. Emerging data point...
Book Chapter
Series: Atlases of Tumor and Non-Tumor Pathology, Series 5
Volume: 18
Published: 01 January 2024
10.55418/9781933477367-09
ISBN-10: 1-933477-36-9
ISBN: 978-1-933477-36-7
... of estrogen and progesterone during the ovulatory cycles. At this time there is also an increase in the deposition of adipose tissue in the breast, which accounts for enlargement of the fibroglandular breast disc. The male breast does not change substantially at puberty, although alterations in the balance...